Cancer

Lung cancer is the second frequent cause of cancer in men and the third most common cancer in women. One out of every five persons who died from cancer had lung cancer. An estimated 85% of lung cancer cases in males and 75% in females are caused by cigarette smoking. Less than 10% of lung cancers occur among non-smokers. The risk of lung cancer for the smoker is 15 to 25 times increased. When the smoker stops smoking, the risk of lung cancer dropped to 2 times the risk of a non-smoker after 10 to 15 years. The best safeguard against lung cancer is never to smoke, and if you smoke, stop smoking now. In Singapore, a total of 6612 new cases of lung cancer were diagnosed in 2009 – 2013.

The stomach like the rest of the body is made up of billions of little units called cells. The cells have a specific function and they divide in an orderly manner.
However, when these cells lose control of their division, a mass of tissue called a tumour is formed. A tumour may be benign (non- cancerous) if it does not have the potential to spread and invade other tissues, or malignant (cancerous) if it invades other neighboring tissues and organs. When they invade lymph channels or the blood stream, these cancer cells break away to form new cancers in other tissues and organs.
Cancer of the stomach is the seventh most common cancer in men and the eighth most common cancer in women in our local population. If the cancer is detected early, it is potentially curable.

Our body is made up of basic units called cells. When these cells grow in an uncontrolled manner, a malignant growth or a cancer is formed.
Colorectal cancer is formed from cells which line the inner wall of the colon and rectum. This lining is called the mucosa. At this stage the cancer is termed non-invasive i.e. the cancer cells have not spread out of the colon. If undetected, the cancer will grow bigger and project into the lumen of the colon. It will also invade through the colon wall and spread via several routes:

  1. Invasion of neighbouring intestines and organs
  2. Lymphatic system into neighbouring lymph glands called mesenteric lymph nodes.
  3. Blood stream to the liver where secondary malignant deposits can be formed.
  4. Colorectal cancer that has invaded the lymph nodes or the liver is in the advanced stage.
    In Singapore, a total of 8931 new cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed in 2009 – 2013.
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